Deprivation, low income and associated unemployment and benefit dependency are closely correlated with a wide range of indicators of poor health or low levels of wellbeing.
The Local Picture
Relative overall deprivation in Calderdale has increased in recent years when compared with other authorities in England. In the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) 2010 Calderdale was ranked 105th out of 326 local authority districts compared with a rank of 89 in IMD 2015 (a lower rank denotes a higher deprivation).
The Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2015 - Calderdale map [PDF 283KB] shows the most deprived neighbourhoods in Calderdale which are in Park, Ovenden, and Illingworth and Mixenden wards.
IMD 2015 is based on seven individual domains. Calderdale’s average score ranks are as follows:
- 84th most income deprived local authority district (a relative improvement compared with 79th in IMD 2010);
- 71st most employment deprived local authority district (compared with 73rd in IMD 2010);
- 141st most education deprived local authority district;
- 90th most health deprived;
- 86th most deprived in terms of crime;
- 294th most deprived in terms of Barriers to Housing and Services;
- 33rd most deprived in terms of quality of living environment.
There are around 28,200 of Calderdale’s residents living in neighbourhoods ranked by IMD 2015 as being within the 10% most deprived in England. This includes 7,000 children aged 0-15 years old and 4,500 older people aged 60 years old and over. The results for IMD 2010 were 18,919 overall, of which 4,460 were children aged 0-15 years old and 3,100 older people aged 60 years old and over.
There is some correlation between overall deprivation and health deprivation levels and geographic distribution in Calderdale. There are significant inequalities in life expectancy with males in the least deprived quintile expected to live 7 years longer than those in the most deprived quintile. Females in the least deprived quintile are expected to live almost 6 years longer than in the most deprived quintile.
The scarf chart within the The segment tool: segmenting life expectancy gaps by cause of death shows that circulatory diseases are the main contributors to reduced life expectancy in males in the most deprived areas, followed by respiratory conditions. In females the main contributor is cancer followed by respiratory conditions.
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Many of the neighbourhoods in Calderdale that record relatively high levels of deprivation in IMD 2015 also did so in IMD 2010. Forty six of Calderdale’s neighbourhoods in IMD 2015 are ranked as within the 30% most deprived neighbourhoods nationally. Since IMD 2010, two areas (one in Ovenden and one in Warley) have dropped into the most deprived 30%, with one (in Todmorden) improving its relative deprivation to the fourth decile.
For two neighbourhoods (one each in Todmorden and Elland wards) there was a positive improvement in their IMD ranks of over 10%. For eight neighbourhoods, their relative IMD rank reduced by over 10%:
- Calder ward: 2 neighbourhoods;
- Greetland and Stainland ward: 2 neighbourhoods;
- Ovenden ward: 1 neighbourhood;
- Skircoat ward: 2 neighbourhoods;
- Sowerby Bridge: 1 neighbourhood.
Projected future need
IMD 2015 results are based mainly on data from 2012/13 or 2011. Economic conditions will have improved nationally and locally since that period. This will potentially reduce the number of people who are vulnerable to income and economic deprivation, subject to changes to household incomes introduced by the roll out of Universal Credit.
Key local services will have impact on how residents experience deprivation for each of the IMD domains. This includes those that aim to:
- improve the local employment market and economy;
- help children and young adults achieve their full educational potential;
- improve health and reduce health inequalities for all residents;
- reduce crime incidents;
- maintain relatively good levels of access to housing and services; and
- improve the quality of the living environment for all.
Key considerations linked to the known evidence base (what works?)
IMD 2015 provides a national definition of relative deprivation compared with other areas in England. It does not provide a measure of “absolute” deprivation. Results for IMD 2015 are based on a different set of indicators to IMD 2010 and earlier, and therefore do not support comparisons over time.
References and further information
- IMD 2015: Indices of Multiple Deprivation 2015 - Calderdale map [PDF 283KB] ;
- Public Health England, 2015: The segment tool: segmenting life expectancy gaps by cause of death ;
- Department for Communities and Local Government: English indices of deprivation 2015
More information can be found in Further resources .
For further information, contact:
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Cath Bentley, Business Intelligence Officer, Performance and Business Intelligence team, Calderdale Council;
Contributor: Paula Holden Public Health Information Manager, Public Health, Calderdale Council.
12 January 2016.