Cancer is one of the main contributors to reduced life expectancy in both males and females compared to England. If the death rate from cancer was the same as that for England, males would be expected to live 0.53 years longer and females 0.25 years longer ( Life expectancy segment tool ).
Over half of all cancers could be prevented by changes to lifestyle (eg diet, alcohol intake, obesity). Smoking is the single largest preventable risk factor for cancer.
The local picture
All statistics are taken from Public Health England cancer profiles
Over 1,100 cases of cancer are diagnosed each year in Calderdale residents and around 550 residents die each year from cancer.
During 2013/14 the incidence of cancer was 521 per 100,000 which is similar to the England rate of 515 per 100,000. The prevalence was 2.5% which is similar to the England figure (2.4%). Both incidence and prevalence have increased since 2009/10.
The premature mortality rate from cancer is no longer significantly higher than that for England (145.3 per 100,000 compared to 138.8 per 100,000).
Mortality rate from cancer in persons aged under 75
Cancer incidence (2011 to 2013) and mortality (2012 to 2014) in males
Cancer incidence (2011 to 2013) and mortality (2012 to 2014) in females
Nationally it has been found that:
- cancer incidence and mortality is higher in males than females;
- cancer incidence is higher in White and Black males than Asian males (Cancer research UK);
- cancer incidence is higher in White females than Black or Asian females (Cancer research UK);
- cancer incidence is higher in more deprived areas (Cancer research UK).
Action on cancer reflects the strategic approach to cancer commissioning for the Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs) in the short and medium term, taking into account national, regional and local priorities.
The national cancer patient experience survey conducted at Calderdale and Huddersfield Foundation Trust provides detailed information on patients views of their care at the Trust.
- 69.7% of eligible women were screened for breast cancer in the last 3 years and this was significantly lower than for England (72.5%);
- 77.8% of women eligible for cervical screening, in the last 3.5 to 5.5 years, attended and this was significantly higher than for England;
- 60.9% of those eligible were screened for bowel cancer in the last 2.5 years and this was significantly higher than for England.
Projected future need
Based on current trends the incidence and mortality from cancer is expected to remain fairly similar in 5 years’ time. However an increasing population means that the actual numbers with and dying from cancer are likely to increase.
Key considerations linked to the known evidence base (what works?)
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) has produced a wealth of evidence based guidance for all aspects of cancer prevention and treatment :
Nearly half of all cancers can be prevented:
- Reduce smoking prevalence (see smoking section for more detail);
- Reduce alcohol consumption (see substance misuse section for more detail);
- Improving diet and reducing obesity (see obesity section for more detail);
- Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine for cervical cancer.
Increasing awareness and early presentation
- Early diagnosis;
- Breast cancer screening;
- Cervical cancer screening;
- Bowel cancer screening.
Paula Holden, Public Health Information Manager, Public Health, Calderdale Council.