Calderdale demographic information

Map of Calderdale showing transport links

Calderdale is a metropolitan district and includes the towns of Halifax, Elland, Brighouse, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge and Todmorden, as well as a number of villages.

The district has a population density of 5.76 per hectare, the lowest of any local authority in West Yorkshire. In Bradford it is 14.58, 10.70 in Kirklees, 14.17 in Leeds and 9.95 in Wakefield (Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2016 Mid-year population estimates, taken from Local Government (LG) Inform).

Calderdale is one of the smallest districts in England in terms of population, but one of the largest in terms of area. Over four-fifths of the Calderdale area is described as rural by the national Census 2011 (ONS, 2011). In contrast the local authority population is described as “Urban with major conurbations” by the Government Statistical Service in its 2011 Rural-Urban Classification for Local Authority Districts in England. This is because over three quarters of the population live in urban areas.

Calderdale’s topography and its pattern of settlement have implications for the location of facilities, for transport, and for how close people are to health and other care services.

Current population

There are 209,800 people in Calderdale according to the ONS 2016 Mid-year population estimates. This is an increase of approximately 5,900 people since the 2011 Census.

Age and gender

Figure 1 shows the population structure of Calderdale using the Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2016 Mid-year population estimates. From this graph it can be noted that Calderdale has a similar population structure to the national picture.

The proportion of adults between the ages of 20 and 40 is significantly less than those in the 40-69 year old age groups.

In the 75 and over age group the proportion of males to females reduces, illustrating the key determinant to higher life expectancy is gender.

Figure 1: Calderdale population by age group and gender

Calderdale population by age group and gender 2016

Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2016 Mid-year population estimates

Ethnicity

Table 1 shows the largest ethnic group in Calderdale is White British (86.7%), as recorded in the national Census 2011. The second largest ethnic group is Asian / Asian British (8.3%) of which the majority (6.8%) are Pakistani.

Table 1: Calderdale population by ethnic group

Ethnic group Number (population) Percentage of total population
White 182,787 89.7%
- White British 176,732 86.7%
- White other 6,055 3.0%
Asian / Asian British 16,875 8.3%
- Pakistani 13,904 6.8%
- Indian 1,130 0.6%
- Bangladeshi 574 0.3%
- Asian other 1,267 0.6%
Mixed 2,797 1.4%
Black / Black British 899 0.4%
Other 468 0.2%
Total 203,826 100.0%

Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census.

Age and ethnic group

Tables 2a and 2b show the population split by age and ethnicity as recorded in the 2011 Census. The Asian ethnic category accounts for 15.6% of 0 to 4 year olds and 13.4% of 5 to 14 year olds. The pensioner population is largely white with less than 3% of this age group comprising of Black and Minority Ethnicity (BME) groups.

Table 2a: Ethnic group and age group profile across Calderdale - population numbers

Ethnic group 0 to 4

years
5 to 14

years
15 to 24

years
25 to 34

years
35 to 44

years
45 to 54

years
55 to 64

years
65 to 74

years
75 to 84

years
85 years

and over
Total

population
White 10,333 20,397 20,597 20,349 26,461 28,371 24,696 17,056 10,283 4,244 182,787
 - White British 10,013 19,879 20,087 19,092 25,567 27,578 24,053 16,528 9,851 4,084 176,732
 - White other 320 518 510 1,257 894 793 643 528 432 160 6,055
Asian / Asian British 2,017 3,297 2,772 3,492 2,438 1,266 860 448 250 35 16,875
 - Pakistani 1,713 2,890 2,379 2,820 1,890 980 677 319 205 31 13,904
 - Indian 107 115 108 328 207 110 85 47 19 4 1,130
 - Bangladeshi 80 128 105 115 65 31 15 21 14 0 574
 - Asian other 117 164 180 229 276 145 83 61 12 0 1,267
Mixed 461 670 519 354 380 234 97 41 29 12 2,797
Black / Black British 61 114 101 157 188 165 56 38 17 2 899
Other 34 67 61 112 96 45 36 10 6 1 468
Total 12,906 24,545 24,050 24,464 29,563 30,081 25,745 17,593 10,585 4,294 203,826

Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census

Table 2b: Ethnic group and age group profile across Calderdale - percentage of total population

Ethnic group 0 to 4

years
5 to 14

years
15 to 24

years
25 to 34

years
35 to 44

years
45 to 54

years
55 to 64

years
65 to 74

years
75 to 84

years
85 years

and over
Percentage of

total population
White 80.1% 83.1% 85.6% 83.2% 89.5% 94.3% 95.9% 96.9% 97.1% 98.8% 89.7%
 - White British 77.6% 81.0% 83.5% 78.0% 86.5% 91.7% 93.4% 93.9% 93.1% 95.1% 86.7%
 - White other 2.5% 2.1% 2.1% 5.1% 3.0% 2.6% 2.5% 3.0% 4.1% 3.7% 3.0%
Asian / Asian British 15.6% 13.4% 11.5% 14.3% 8.2% 4.2% 3.3% 2.5% 2.4% 0.8% 8.3%
 - Pakistani 13.3% 11.8% 9.9% 11.5% 6.4% 3.3% 2.6% 1.8% 1.9% 0.7% 6.8%
 - Indian 0.8% 0.5% 0.4% 1.3% 0.7% 0.4% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% 0.6%
 - Bangladeshi 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.3%
 - Asian other 0.9% 0.7% 0.7% 0.9% 0.9% 0.5% 0.3% 0.3% 0.1% 0.0% 0.6%
Mixed 3.6% 2.7% 2.2% 1.4% 1.3% 0.8% 0.4% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 1.4%
Black / Black British 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.05% 0.4%
Other 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 0.3% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 6 1 468
Total 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census

Religion and belief

Table 3 shows the population split by religion and belief as recorded in the 2011 Census. The majority of the population (60.6%) are Christian and 7.8% of the population are Muslim. Nearly a third of the population (30.2%) stated they had no religion.

Table 3: Religion and belief - percentage of total population in Calderdale

Religion Percentage of total population (2011)
Christian 60.6%
Buddhist 0.3%
Hindu 0.3%
Jewish 0.1%
Muslim 7.8%
Sikh 0.2%
Other religion 0.4%
No religion 30.2%

Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census

Sexual orientation and gender reassignment

The 2011 Census found that there were 491 people in a registered same-sex civil partnership across Calderdale (0.3% of the population). This does not include same-sex cohabiting couples which are not recorded by the Census.

Ward level data shows a higher proportion registered in same-sex civil partnership in Calder (1.13%), Luddendenfoot (0.67%) and Todmorden (0.45%).

Nationally it has been estimated that 5 to 7% of the population is lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT). If this figure was applied to Calderdale this would equate to approximately 10,300 to 14,400 LGBT people in Calderdale.

Sexual orientation is not often recorded when people access services, so there is little local information on this population.

Disability

The national Census includes an indicator of residents who identify as having any form of long-term condition which affects their ability to carry out every day activities. Table 4 shows the number of people in Calderdale who reported in the 2011 Census they had a limiting long term illness (LLTI) by age group. The number and proportion of people with LLTIs increase with age.

Table 4: Limiting long term illness by age group in Calderdale - 2011 Census

Age group Number of population Percentage of population
0 to 15 years 1,443 3.6%
16 to 24 years 1,165 5.5%
25 to 34 years 1,868 7.6%
25 to 49 years 5,316 11.7%
50 to 64 years 9,359 23.5%
65 to 74 years 6,810 38.9%
75 to 84 years 6,497 62.3%
85 years and over 3,012 82.4%
Age not stated 1,230 68.4%
Overall 36,600 18.0%

Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census

The following benefits provide further indications of the number of people in the district with severe ill-health and / or disability:

  • Employment support allowance (ESA), and its predecessor Incapacity benefit, are available to working age people with severe ill-health and / or disability.  7.1% (9,260) of Calderdale residents received ESA or Incapacity benefit in November 2016 (Source: NOMIS Local authority profile, accessed 6 July 2017);
  • Disability living allowance (DLA), and its successor Personal independence payment (PIP), are non-means tested benefits that aim to help working age adults with some of the mobility and care costs of long term illness and disability. DLA cases are gradually being transferred to PIP via an assessment process. In November 2016 there were 11,847 (9.1%) residents aged 16 to 64 years old receiving either PIP or DLA: 8,055 residents received DLA and 3,792 residents received PIP. Of the 3,792 receiving PIP, 2,330 were new claims. (Sources: DWP Stat-Xplore, accessed 6 July 2017; Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2016 Mid year population estimates, published June 2017);
  • Attendance Allowance is a non-means tested benefit paid to people aged 65 years old and over who are severely disabled. 10.2% (3,862) of people aged 65 years old and over claimed attendance allowance in November 2016 (Source: DWP Stat-Xplore, accessed 6 July 2017).
Always open first panel: 

Population trends

Age

Tables 5a and 5b, and Figure 2 show how the age profile in Calderdale has changed between 1991 and 2016:

  • The number of 0 to 4 year olds in 2016 is almost the same as in 1991, having dipped in the intervening period;
  • The proportion of children aged 5 to 14 is currently 12.2% which is slightly higher than 12.0% recorded at Census 2011;
  • The proportion of residents aged 25 to 34 is currently 12.1% which is slightly higher than 12.0% recorded at Census 2011. In 1991 there were 28,800 (14.9%) residents in this age group. In 2016 there were 25,432 (12.1%);
  • There have been large increases in the proportion and the numbers of residents aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64 since 1991, which may have implications for the residents aged 65 and over within the next ten years;
  • The population aged 85 and over has increased steadily from 3,200 in 1991 to over 4,700 in 2016.

Table 5a: Calderdale residents by age group for 1991 to 2016 - population numbers

Year 1991 2001 2011 2016
0 to 4 years 13,500 12,065 12,906 13,100
5 to 14 years 27,000 26,411 24,545 25,500
15 to 24 years 23,900 20,697 24,050 23,200
25 to 34 years 28,800 26,308 24,464 25,400
35 to 44 years 27,800 29,401 29,563 26,500
45 to 54 years 22,000 27,132 30,081 32,200
55 to 64 years 18,400 20,389 25,745 26,000
65 to 74 years 17,400 15,320 17,593 21,800
75 to 84 years 10,900 10,842 10,585 11,400
85 years and over 3,200 3,840 4,294 4,700
All ages 192,900 192,405 203,826 209,800

Source: 2001 Census, 2011 Census, 1991 and 2016 mid year population estimates. Mid year population estimates have been rounded to the nearest 100.

Table 5b: Calderdale residents by age group for 1991 to 2016 - percentage of population

Year 1991 2001 2011 2016
0 to 4 years 7.0% 6.0% 6.0% 6.0%
5 to 14 years 14.0% 14.0% 12.0% 12.0%
15 to 24 years 12.0% 11.0% 12.0% 11.0%
25 to 34 years 14.9% 14.0% 12.0% 12.0%
35 to 44 years 14.0% 15.0% 15.0% 13.0%
45 to 54 years 11.4% 14.1% 14.8% 15.0%
55 to 64 years 10.0% 11.0% 13.0% 12.0%
65 to 74 years 9.0% 8.0% 9.0% 10.0%
75 to 84 years 6.0% 6.0% 5.0% 5.0%
85 years and over 2.0% 2.0% 2.0% 2.0%
All ages 100.0% 100.0% 100.0% 100.0%

Source: 2001 Census, 2011 Census, 1991 and 2016 mid year population estimates.

Figure 2: Calderdale population by age

Calderdale population by age 2016

Source: 2001 Census, 2011 Census, 1991 and 2016 mid year population estimates

Birth rates

There are a number of measures of birth rate that are useful for service planning. These include:

  • the crude live birth rate - the number of live births per 1,000 residents;
  • the General Fertility Rate (GFR) - the number of live births per 1,000 females of childbearing age (calculated as those aged 15-44 years);
  • the standardised fertility ratio (SFR) - the number of live births that would occur if the population in Calderdale experienced the age-specific fertility rates of England and Wales. A value greater than 100 suggests a higher than expected birth rate, while a value of less than 100 reflects a lower than expected birth rate, with 100 being the England average rate.

In 2014, there were 2,533 live births in Calderdale. Having increased steadily between 2005 and 2010 (an increase of over 10%) the number of births appears to have levelled off.

Figure 3: Number of live births in Calderdale, 2005-14

Number of live births in Calderdale 2005-14

This equates to a crude live birth rate of 12.2 per 1,000 females – similar to regional and national rates (12.0 in Yorkshire and Humber, and 12.2 in England, Office for National Statistics, Vital Statistics table 1, 2014).

Figure 4: Live births per 1,000 residents 2005-07 to 2012-14 (crude rate)

Live births per 1,000 residents 2005-07 to 2012-14 (crude rate)

However, the GFR¸ which takes into account the size of the female population of childbearing age was 66.1 per 1,000 in 2014 - higher than regional and national rates (61.9 in Yorkshire and Humber and 62.2 in England).

Figure 5: Live births per 1,000 females aged 15-44, 2005-14 (GFR)

Live births per 1,000 females aged 15-44, 2005-14 (GFR)

Using the SFR, we can better compare Calderdale to the rest of England, taking into account a more detailed breakdown of the age structure locally. In 2014, the SFR in Calderdale was 110 (with 100 representing the England average), thus there were more births in Calderdale than might be expected. The SFR in Yorkshire and Humber was 101.

Ethnicity

Table 6 shows the change in the number and proportion of people in Calderdale by ethnic group between the 2001 Census and 2011 Census. The biggest increases have been from the Pakistani (4,462) and White Other (1,849) ethnic groups.

Table 6: Calderdale population by Ethnic group - 2001 Census and 2011 Census

Ethnic Group 2001 census 2011 census
  Population number Percentage of population Population number Percentage of population
White 178,981 93.0% 182,787 89.7%
 - White British 174,775 90.8% 176,732 86.7%
 - White other 4,206 2.2% 6,055 3.0%
Asian / Asian British 11,237 5.8% 16,875 8.3%
 - Pakistani 9,442 4.9% 13,904 6.8%
 - Indian 814 0.4% 1,130 0.6%
 - Bangladeshi 300 0.2% 574 0.3%
 - Asian other 681 0.4% 1,267 0.6%
Mixed 681 0.8% 2,797 1.4%
Black / Black British 437 0.2% 899 0.4%
Other 204 0.1% 468 0.2%
Total 192,405 100.0% 203,826 100.0%

Source: Office for National Statistics 2001 Census and 2011 Census. The ethnic group 'Asian other' includes the Chinese ethnic group.

Migration

The  2015 Calderdale Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) sets out recent trends in migration to the district. Within the document, chapter 2, paragraphs 2.5 to 2.13 set out recent trends in internal migration from within the UK. Chapter 4, figures 4.4 and 4.8, and paragraphs 4.15, 4.16, 4.26 – 4.30 and 4.72, and chapter 6, figures 6.4 and 6.6 and paragraphs 6.14 and 6.18 includes information on the impact of international migration on population levels in the district. Appendix 2 includes summaries of the impact of migration and natural change on sub-areas within Calderdale.

Migration Yorkshire has produced an overview of migration to Calderdale: PDFCalderdale local migration profile - December 2016 [PDF 71KB]

Disability

As mentioned in the Current population section on this page under the subtitle Disability, the national Census includes an indicator of residents who identify as having any form of long-term condition which affects their ability to carry out every day activities. Table 7 shows the number and proportion of people in Calderdale who reported in the last three national censuses that they have a limiting long-term illness. The proportion has changed very slightly between 2001 and 2011 but the number has increased.

Table 7: Calderdale population with Limiting long term illness (LLTI) - 1991 Census, 2001 Census and 2011 Census

  All ages Working age
Year Number of population Percentage of population Number of population Percentage of population
1991 24,080 12.5% 16,925 12.3%
2001 35,322 18.4% 16,056 13.7%
2011 36,600 17.9% 17,892 13.6%

Source: Office for National Statistics 1991 Census, 2001 Census, 2011 Census

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Population projections

The latest district-level population projections (Figure 6) are based on Office for National Statistics 2014 population projections published in May 2016. They assume that recent trends in migration, fertility and mortality will continue. These projections indicate a period of relatively rapid population growth over the coming years, with the total district population projected to grow by around 11,000 between 2014 and 2024 (a 5.3% increase).

Figure 6: Projected population growth

Projected population growth for Calderdale

Source: Census 2011, Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2014 Sub national population estimates.

It is worth emphasising that these projections are not forecasts of what will happen, since they take no account of constraints, policy, changes in migration, etc, but they are indicators of what would happen if trends continued.

Table 8 shows the largest growth is expected to occur in the older age groups, with a 29% increase in those aged 85 and over by 2024, a 11% increase in those aged 65 to 74 and a 42% increase in those aged 75 to 84. There is also expected to be a 7.6% increase in children aged 0-15.

Table 8: Calderdale projected population growth 2014-2024

Age group 2014:

population number
2024:

population number
Difference:

population number
Difference:

percentage
0 to 4 years 13,200 12,900 -300 -2.1%
4 to 14 years 24,800

26,600

+1,800 +7.6%
15 to 24 years 23,700 22,300 -1,400 -5.8%
25 to 44 years 52,600 53,000 +400 +1.0%
45 to 64 years 56,900 58,900 +2,000 +3.6%
65 to 74 years 20,500 22,700 +2,200 +10.5%
75 to 84 years 11,200 15,900 +4,700 +41.8%
85 years and over 4,600 6,000 +1,400 +28.5%
Total 207,500 218,300 +10,800 +5.3%

Source: ONS 2014 Sub national population projections. The population projections have been rounded to the nearest 100, but the percentage change is calculated on actual data.

Further analysis on projected population growth is available in Chapter 6 of 2015 Calderdale Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) .

Authors

Cath Bentley, Business Intelligence Officer, Performance and Business Intelligence team, HR, IT and Transformation, Calderdale Council;

Naomi Marquis, Public Health Intelligence Officer, Public Health, Calderdale Council.

April 2016, updated February and June 2017.