Calderdale is a metropolitan district and includes the towns of Halifax, Elland, Brighouse, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge and Todmorden, as well as a number of villages.
The district has a population density of 5.75 per hectare, the lowest of any local authority in West Yorkshire. In Bradford it is 14.60, 10.70 in Kirklees, 14.23 in Leeds and 10.06 in Wakefield (Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2017 Mid-year population estimates, taken from Local Government (LG) Inform).
Calderdale is one of the smallest districts in England in terms of population, but one of the largest in terms of area. Over four-fifths of the Calderdale area is described as rural by the national Census 2011 (ONS, 2011). In contrast the local authority population is described as “Urban with major conurbations” by the Government Statistical Service in its 2011 Rural-Urban Classification for Local Authority Districts in England. This is because over three quarters of the population live in urban areas.
Calderdale’s topography and its pattern of settlement have implications for the location of facilities, for transport, and for how close people are to health and other care services.
In March 2018 the Office for National Statistics (ONS) published revised annual mid-year population estimates for all local authorities. The ONS estimate for Calderdale’s population in 2016 had reduced from 209,800 to 209,100 (ONS 2016 Mid-year population estimates, revised 22 March 2018).
In June 2018 ONS published its 2017 mid-year population estimates. According to ONS there are 209,500 people in Calderdale (ONS 2017 Mid-year population estimates). This is an increase of approximately 5,600 people since the 2011 Census.
Age and gender
Figure 1 shows the population structure of Calderdale using the Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2017 Mid-year population estimates. From this graph it can be noted that Calderdale has a similar population structure to the national picture.
The proportion of adults between the ages of 20 and 39 (23%) is less than those in the 40-59 year old age group (28%).
In the 75 and over age group the proportion of males to females reduces, illustrating the key determinant to higher life expectancy is gender.
Figure 1: Calderdale population by age group and gender
Source: Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2017 Mid-year population estimates
Table 1 shows the largest ethnic group in Calderdale is White British (86.7%), as recorded in the national Census 2011. The second largest ethnic group is Asian / Asian British (8.3%) of which the majority (6.8%) are Pakistani.
Table 1: Calderdale population by ethnic group
|Ethnic group||Population||Percentage of total population|
|- White British||176,732||86.7%|
|- White other||6,055||3.0%|
|Asian / Asian British||16,875||8.3%|
|- Asian other||1,267||0.6%|
|Black / Black British||899||0.4%|
Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census.
Age and ethnic group
Tables 2a and 2b show the population split by age and ethnicity as recorded in the 2011 Census. The Asian ethnic category accounts for 15.6% of 0 to 4 year olds and 13.4% of 5 to 14 year olds. The pensioner population is largely white with less than 3% of this age group comprising of Black and Minority Ethnicity (BME) groups.
Table 2a: Ethnic group and age group profile across Calderdale - population numbers
|Ethnic group||0 to 4 years||5 to 14 years||15 to 24 years||25 to 34 years||35 to 44 years||45 to 54 years||55 to 64 years||65 to 74 years||75 to 84 years||85 years and over||Total population|
|- White British||10,013||19,879||20,087||19,092||25,567||27,578||24,053||16,528||9,851||4,084||176,732|
|- White other||320||518||510||1,257||894||793||643||528||432||160||6,055|
|Asian / Asian British||2,017||3,297||2,772||3,492||2,438||1,266||860||448||250||35||16,875|
|- Asian other||117||164||180||229||276||145||83||61||12||0||1,267|
|Black / Black British||61||114||101||157||188||165||56||38||17||2||899|
Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census
Table 2b: Ethnic group and age group profile across Calderdale - percentage of total population
|Ethnic group||0 to 4 years||5 to 14 years||15 to 24 years||25 to 34 years||35 to 44 years||45 to 54 years||55 to 64 years||65 to 74 years||75 to 84 years||85 years and over||Percentage of total population|
|- White British||77.6%||81.0%||83.5%||78.0%||86.5%||91.7%||93.4%||93.9%||93.1%||95.1%||86.7%|
|- White other||2.5%||2.1%||2.1%||5.1%||3.0%||2.6%||2.5%||3.0%||4.1%||3.7%||3.0%|
|Asian / Asian British||15.6%||13.4%||11.5%||14.3%||8.2%||4.2%||3.3%||2.5%||2.4%||0.8%||8.3%|
|- Asian other||0.9%||0.7%||0.7%||0.9%||0.9%||0.5%||0.3%||0.3%||0.1%||0.0%||0.6%|
|Black / Black British||0.5%||0.5%||0.4%||0.6%||0.6%||0.5%||0.2%||0.2%||0.2%||0.05%||0.4%|
Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census
Religion and belief
Table 3 shows the population split by religion and belief as recorded in the 2011 Census. The majority of the population (60.6%) are Christian and 7.8% of the population are Muslim. Nearly a third of the population (30.2%) stated they had no religion.
Table 3: Religion and belief - percentage of total population in Calderdale
|Religion||Percentage of total population (2011)|
Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census
Sexual orientation and gender reassignment
The 2011 Census found that there were 491 people in a registered same-sex civil partnership across Calderdale (0.3% of the population). This does not include same-sex cohabiting couples which are not recorded by the Census.
Ward level data shows a higher proportion registered in same-sex civil partnership in Calder (1.13%), Luddendenfoot (0.67%) and Todmorden (0.45%).
Nationally it has been estimated that 5 to 7% of the population is lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT). If this figure was applied to Calderdale this would equate to approximately 10,300 to 14,400 LGBT people in Calderdale.
Sexual orientation is not often recorded when people access services, so there is little local information on this population.
The national Census includes an indicator of residents who identify as having any form of long-term condition which affects their ability to carry out every day activities. Table 4 shows the number of people in Calderdale who reported in the 2011 Census they had a limiting long term illness (LLTI) by age group. The number and proportion of people with LLTIs increase with age.
Table 4: Limiting long term illness by age group in Calderdale - 2011 Census
|Age group||Number of population||Percentage of population|
|0 to 15 years||1,443||3.6%|
|16 to 24 years||1,165||5.5%|
|25 to 34 years||1,868||7.6%|
|25 to 49 years||5,316||11.7%|
|50 to 64 years||9,359||23.5%|
|65 to 74 years||6,810||38.9%|
|75 to 84 years||6,497||62.3%|
|85 years and over||3,012||82.4%|
|Age not stated||1,230||68.4%|
Source: Office for National Statistics 2011 Census
The following benefits provide further indications of the number of people in the district with severe ill-health and / or disability:
- Employment support allowance (ESA), and its predecessor Incapacity benefit, are available to working age people with severe ill-health and / or disability. In November 2017 7,870 (7.3%) of Calderdale’s working age residents received ESA (Source: NOMIS DWP WPLS ESA data set accessed 29 June 2018);
- Disability living allowance (DLA), and its successor Personal independence payment (PIP), are non-means tested benefits that aim to help people up to the age of 65 with some of the mobility and care costs of long term illness and disability. DLA cases are gradually being transferred to PIP via an assessment process.
In November 2017 there 12,023 (7%) Calderdale residents aged up to 65 in receipt of DLA or PIP: of these 6,560 were DLA claimants and 5,463 were PIP claimants (Data sources: NOMIS DWP WPLS DLA data, DWP Stat xplore PIP Claims data, ONS 2017 Mid year population estimates; all accessed 29 June 2018);
- Attendance Allowance is a non-means tested benefit paid to people aged 65 years old and over who are severely disabled. In November 2017 4,296 (11%) people aged 65 years old and over were entitled to Attendance Allowance (Sources: DWP Stat-Xplore, ONS 2017 Mid year population estimates, both accessed 29 June 2018).
Tables 5a and 5b, and Figure 2 show how the age profile in Calderdale has changed between 1991 and 2017. There have been small changes for most age groups with larger increases in older age groups:
- The number of 0 to 4 year olds in 2017 was lower than the number in 2011, having been higher in recent years;
- The proportion of children aged 5 to 14 was 12.4%, slightly higher than 2011 (12%);
- The proportion of young people aged 15 to 24 was 11%, slightly lower than 2011 (12%);
- The proportion of residents aged 25 to 34 was 12%, the same as recorded in 2011. In 1991 there were 28,800 (14.9%) residents in this age group.
- There were large increases in the proportion and the numbers of residents aged 45 to 54 and 55 to 64. This may have implications for the residents aged 65 and over within the next ten years.
- The group aged 65 to 74 has already seen a 26% increase since 2011. This compares with a 3% increase for the total population.
- The population aged 85 and over has increased steadily by 10% from 4294 in 2011 to over 4,700 in 2017.
Table 5a: Calderdale residents by age group for 1991 to 2017 - population numbers
|0 to 4 years||13,500||12,065||12,906||12,800|
|5 to 14 years||27,000||26,411||24,545||26,000|
|15 to 24 years||23,900||20,697||24,050||22,400|
|25 to 34 years||28,800||26,308||24,464||25,200|
|35 to 44 years||27,800||29,401||29,563||26,100|
|45 to 54 years||22,000||27,132||30,081||31,900|
|55 to 64 years||18,400||20,389||25,745||26,600|
|65 to 74 years||17,400||15,320||17,593||22,100|
|75 to 84 years||10,900||10,842||10,585||11,500|
|85 years and over||3,200||3,840||4,294||4,700|
Source: 2001 Census, 2011 Census, 1991 and 2017 mid year population estimates. Mid year population estimates have been rounded to the nearest 100.
Table 5b: Calderdale residents by age group for 1991 to 2017 - percentage of population
|0 to 4 years||7.0%||6.0%||6.0%||6.1%|
|5 to 14 years||14.0%||14.0%||12.0%||12.4%|
|15 to 24 years||12.0%||11.0%||12.0%||10.7%|
|25 to 34 years||14.9%||14.0%||12.0%||12.0%|
|35 to 44 years||14.0%||15.0%||15.0%||12.5%|
|45 to 54 years||11.4%||14.1%||14.8%||15.2%|
|55 to 64 years||10.0%||11.0%||13.0%||12.7%|
|65 to 74 years||9.0%||8.0%||9.0%||10.5%|
|75 to 84 years||6.0%||6.0%||5.0%||5.5%|
|85 years and over||2.0%||2.0%||2.0%||2.3%|
(Source: ONS: 2017 Mid year population estimates). All population figures, including totals are rounded to the nearest 100, the percentages are calculated on the actual data)
Figure 2: Calderdale population by age
Source: 2001 Census, 2011 Census, 1991 and 2017 mid year population estimates
There are a number of measures of birth rate that are useful for service planning. These include:
- the crude live birth rate - the number of live births per 1,000 residents;
- the General Fertility Rate (GFR) - the number of live births per 1,000 females of childbearing age (calculated as those aged 15-44 years);
- the standardised fertility ratio (SFR) - the number of live births that would occur if the population in Calderdale experienced the age-specific fertility rates of England and Wales. A value greater than 100 suggests a higher than expected birth rate, while a value of less than 100 reflects a lower than expected birth rate, with 100 being the England average rate.
In 2014, there were 2,533 live births in Calderdale. Having increased steadily between 2005 and 2010 (an increase of over 10%) the number of births appears to have levelled off.
Figure 3: Number of live births in Calderdale, 2005-14
This equates to a crude live birth rate of 12.2 per 1,000 females – similar to regional and national rates (12.0 in Yorkshire and Humber, and 12.2 in England, Office for National Statistics, Vital Statistics table 1, 2014).
Figure 4: Live births per 1,000 residents 2005-07 to 2012-14 (crude rate)
However, the GFR¸ which takes into account the size of the female population of childbearing age was 66.1 per 1,000 in 2014 - higher than regional and national rates (61.9 in Yorkshire and Humber and 62.2 in England).
Figure 5: Live births per 1,000 females aged 15-44, 2005-14 (GFR)
Using the SFR, we can better compare Calderdale to the rest of England, taking into account a more detailed breakdown of the age structure locally. In 2014, the SFR in Calderdale was 110 (with 100 representing the England average), thus there were more births in Calderdale than might be expected. The SFR in Yorkshire and Humber was 101.
Table 6 shows the change in the number and proportion of people in Calderdale by ethnic group between the 2001 Census and 2011 Census. The biggest increases have been from the Pakistani (4,462) and White Other (1,849) ethnic groups.
Table 6: Calderdale population by Ethnic group - 2001 Census and 2011 Census
|Ethnic Group||2001 census||2011 census|
|Population number||Percentage of population||Population number||Percentage of population|
|- White British||174,775||90.8%||176,732||86.7%|
|- White other||4,206||2.2%||6,055||3.0%|
|Asian / Asian British||11,237||5.8%||16,875||8.3%|
|- Asian other||681||0.4%||1,267||0.6%|
|Black / Black British||437||0.2%||899||0.4%|
Source: Office for National Statistics 2001 Census and 2011 Census. The ethnic group 'Asian other' includes the Chinese ethnic group.
Migration Yorkshire has produced an overview of migration to Calderdale. Visit MigrationYorkshire for the latest information.
As mentioned in the Current population section on this page under the subtitle Disability, the national Census includes an indicator of residents who identify as having any form of long-term condition which affects their ability to carry out every day activities. Table 7 shows the number and proportion of people in Calderdale who reported in the last three national censuses that they have a limiting long-term illness. The proportion has changed very slightly between 2001 and 2011 but the number has increased.
Table 7: Calderdale population with Limiting long term illness (LLTI) - 1991 Census, 2001 Census and 2011 Census
|All ages||Working age|
|Year||Number of population||Percentage of population||Number of population||Percentage of population|
Source: Office for National Statistics 1991 Census, 2001 Census, 2011 Census
The latest district-level population projections (Figure 6) are based on Office for National Statistics 2016 population projections published in May 2018. They assume that recent trends in migration, fertility and mortality will continue. These projections indicate a period of relatively steady population growth over the coming years, with the total district population projected to grow by around 7,200 between 2016 and 2026 (a 3.5% increase).
Figure 6: Projected population growth
Source: Census 2011, Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2016 Sub national population estimates.
It is worth emphasising that these projections are not forecasts of what will happen, since they take no account of constraints, policy, changes in migration, etc, but they are indicators of what would happen if trends continued.
Table 8 shows the largest growth in population in the next ten years is expected to occur in the older age groups.
The number of people aged 75-84 is expected to increase by 47% by 2026;
The number of people aged 65 and over is expected to increase by 21%;
There will be a small fall in the number of working age residents aged 18 – 64 (-1.2%). Within that age group, there are sharp differences between the 45-54 age group (expected to fall by 15.1%) and the 55 to 64 age group (expected to increase by 19%).
There is expected to be very little change in the number of children aged 0-14 years (0.1%).
Table 8: Calderdale projected population growth 2016-2026
|Age group||2016 Population||2026 Population||Rounded Population Difference||Percentage Difference|
|0 to 4 years||13,100||12,100||-1,000||-7.2%|
|5 to 14 years||25,500||
|15 to 24 years||23,000||22,600||-400||-2.1%|
|25 to 34 years||25,300||24,200||-1,100||-4.3%|
|35 to 44 years||26,400||27,100||700||2.7%|
|45 to 54 years||32,000||27,100||-4,900||-15.1%|
|55 to 64 years||26,000||30,900||4,900||19.1%|
|65 to 74 years||21,700||23,400||1,700||7.7%|
|75 to 84 years||11,400||16,700||5,300||47.0%|
|85 years and over||4,700||5,700||1,000||20.3%|
Source: ONS 2016 Sub national population projections. The population projections have been rounded to the nearest 100, but the percentage change is calculated on actual data.
Further analysis on projected population growth is available in Chapter 6 of 2015 Calderdale Strategic Housing Market Assessment (SHMA) .