Employment and commuting
Appendix A: Employment information
An overview is given below, or the full appendix is available to download:Appendix A: Employment Information [PDF file 259KB]|
Employment in Calderdale
This section presents data relating to employment within Calderdale, that is, jobs located in Calderdale (as distinct from the employment profile of Calderdale Residents).
Figures from the two information sources, Annual Business Inquiry and 2001 Census of Population, give an overall picture of a rise in employment in Calderdale over the last decade. Over the more recent period, since 1998, the figures suggest a significant dip in employment within Calderdale from 1999 to 2001, followed by steady growth up to 2003. The 2004 figure shows a strong rise although this is a provisional figure and should be treated with caution.
A sectoral breakdown shows the following trends:
- manufacturing employment has decreased from over one third of all employment to under one quarter in 2003, although its contribution remains far above the national average
- banking, finance and related services have risen from under 17% of employment to 23% and are now the single largest sector
- the Distribution, hotels and restaurants sector grew rapidly between 1995 and 2003.
Gender and full-time / part-time working
A breakdown by Gender and full-time / part-time working shows the following trends:
- a growing parity between men and women in employment in Calderdale. Female employment actually exceeded male employment for the first time in 2001, although data for 2003 does not repeat this
- a rapid and continuing increase in the proportion of employment that is part-time
- a significant rise in the percentage of total employment accounted for by male part-time working, to over 6%
- rapid growth of female part-time working between 1995 and 2001 – and a corresponding fall in the proportion accounted for by male full-time working. However, in both cases this development appears to have been reversed between 2001 and 2003
- in 2003 Calderdale had a lower rate of part-time working than the national average. Male full-time staff comprised a larger share of employment in the area than the national average, and male part-time working was lower than the national average. For women, the reverse was true, with part-time working slightly above average and full-time working
below national rates.
Sector, gender and full time / part time working
The gender and full-time or part-time composition of the workforce varies enormously across the different sectors:
- manufacturing employment continues to be overwhelmingly male, in Calderdale and nationally. In Calderdale, the proportion of manufacturing employment accounted for by men has in fact risen substantially in recent years, from 67% in 1989 to 71% in 1995. Whilst surprising in the context of the general growth in female employment, it is likely that this is the result principally of the decline in textile industries, which traditionally had high female employment in Calderdale
- the male share of construction employment has also risen, from 79% in 1989 and 82% in 1995 to the 2001 figure of 86%, which is close to the national average. There is no obvious explanation for this development
- service employment, which has expanded enormously over the last decades, remains primarily female. In particular, the Banking & Finance and Public Administration, Health & Social Care sectors are very heavily dependent on women
- in Calderdale, the proportion of service employment accounted for by women has remained largely stable since 1989. However, it is notable that this proportion is markedly higher than the national picture, where men account for 45% of service employment. This can be explained by the relatively large manufacturing sector in Calderdale, which accounts for more male employment
- the Banking and Finance sector in Calderdale shows a very different gender profile from the national figures. Nationally, over half of this sector is male, whilst in Calderdale 62% is female
- part-time employment, both in Calderdale and nationally, is overwhelmingly concentrated in the Service sector. In Calderdale, 38% of all Service sector employees are part-time (compared to 37% nationally), rising to 45% in Public Administration, Education and Health
- Manufacturing and Construction are predominantly preserves of full-time employment
- the part-time/full-time profile of Banking & Finance in Calderdale differs considerably from England (as it does with relation to the gender split), with more part-time working in Calderdale
- the level of part-time employment in Manufacturing and Construction is actually lower than in 1989. The simultaneous overall growth in part-time employment can only be explained therefore by the increase in service sector employment, within which there is far greater part-time working.
Qualifications of workforce in Calderdale
There is limited information available about qualification levels among the workforce employed within Calderdale. This topic is not included in the Census and the only source is the Household Surveys conducted by the Learning and Skills Council West Yorkshire, which only cover people resident in West Yorkshire. Nevertheless, these surveys provide a useful guide as they achieve sample coverage of over 1,000; and West Yorkshire (including Calderdale itself) is the residence of 95% of the people working within Calderdale. The figures for 2002 and 2005 show that overall qualification levels at NVQ2+ or NVQ3+ have fallen, but NVQ4+ have risen significantly.
Analysis of qualification levels between in-commuters, out-commuters and those residing and working within Calderdale is provided in the main body of the report, in the section on Commuting.
Employee earnings in Calderdale
Results used here are from the New Earnings Survey and the Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings. The surveys of hours and earnings have a relatively small sample size and the figures should be regarded as indicative rather than definitive. Nevertheless, the figures taken over 3 different years show Calderdale’s pay rates to be consistently well below the national average, but consistently above the regional average.
More surprisingly, in terms of hourly pay rates, Calderdale rates have generally been above those for Leeds both in terms of the mean figure and the median. However, the 2005 (and 2004) figures indicate that Leeds hourly and gross weekly pay rates are now above those of Calderdale. Nevertheless, Calderdale rates remain higher than other parts of West Yorkshire.
This section provides a profile of Calderdale Residents who are in employment. Since not all of these work within the District, the characteristics are distinct from that of employment within Calderdale.
Total and sectoral employment
The latest comprehensive and reliable data on the employment of Calderdale residents comes from the 2001 Census. This shows a pattern very similar to that shown by the Annual Business Inquiry figures on workplace employment: a strong fall in residents engaged in manufacturing, and a large rise in the Finance and related Business services sector, both in actual numbers and in contribution to total employment.
Gender split and full time / part time working
Data from the 2001 Census shows some clear differences from the workplace figures available for 2001 from the Annual Business Inquiry. The latter showed one third of the workplace employees working part-time, whilst the Census suggests that among Calderdale residents the figure is only about 1 in 4. There is also a difference in the gender findings, which is likely to reflect the full time and part time split, with the workplace figures showing slightly more women than men in employment, whilst among Calderdale residents in employment, over 53% are male.
Comparison with 1991 Census figures shows that:
- among Calderdale’s residents, part-time employment has continued to grow significantly
- the percentage of Calderdale residents in employment who are female has fallen, after growing rapidly before 1991, entirely composed of a decline in the share of female full-time working
- the share of male part-time working amongst Calderdale residents has risen sharply, continuing a trend visible before 1991
- the percentage working 15 hours or less has fallen slightly, and the percentage working more than 30 hours has fallen significantly, whilst there has been a marked rise in the percentage working between 16 and 30 hours a week.
Considering the pay and earnings of Calderdale residents in full-time employment,
- Hourly Pay and Gross Weekly Pay of Calderdale residents are lower than the Leeds and England figures (both median and mean)
- hourly pay of Calderdale residents is well above the regional averages (both median and mean), although the gross weekly median pay is the same as the regional figure and considerably lower than the England average
- mean (average) rates are about the same as Leeds and higher than the Yorkshire and Humberside average but well below the national figure
- both mean and median figures for Calderdale residents are below those for people working in Calderdale (shown in italics)
- median figures as a percentage of mean figures are slightly lower in Calderdale than in Leeds and Yorkshire & Humberside. This indicates that income inequality may be higher amongst Calderdale residents than the regional average.
Income data is available only by place of residence. Data used for the analysis is from CACI, “PayCheck”, 2006 and includes incomes from all sources. The average (mean) income is calculated by taking total household incomes divided by the total number of households. It can be influenced by relatively small numbers of high income households and is therefore not necessarily a good representation of the position of most households. Calderdale’s average (mean) household income in early 2006 was almost £30,000, compared to a UK figure of £32,300.
In many respects a more meaningful figure is the median (see “Terminology and Definitions” section for explanation). The median household income of £25,000 compares with a UK median income of £27,100.
The median income in Calderdale is 16% below the average (mean) income, indicating that a relatively small number of high incomes raise the average (mean) income figure far above the incomes of most households in the District.
The other figures reinforce this point – approximately 1 in 8 households has an income only one third of the average, and more than 1 in 3 have an income only two-thirds of the average.
Qualifications of Calderdale residents
Data on qualifications of Calderdale residents is available from the 2001 Census and from the Labour Force Survey. Both sets of data indicate that in terms of higher level qualifications, Calderdale is below the national average.
Whilst the figures do not compare favourably with the national ones, Calderdale exceeds the West Yorkshire average for most measures:
- the 2001 Census showed that in terms of the proportion of the 16-74 population with a first degree or above, or 2+ “A” levels, Calderdale was significantly below the England average, whilst for GCSEs it was slightly lower than the England figure
- in comparison to West Yorkshire, Calderdale had substantially more people aged 16-74 with 5+ GCSEs (or equivalent), slightly more with a degree (or equivalent), but fewer with 2+ “A” Levels (or equivalent)
- more recent data from the Labour Force Survey confirms that in terms of NVQ4/5, HNC or HND, Calderdale falls below the national figure, but above the West Yorkshire figure; for NVQ Level 3, Calderdale’s figures are above the national and West Yorkshire
- recent household surveys of Calderdale and West Yorkshire undertaken by the LSC in 2005 confirm that, among residents in employment, Calderdale has higher NVQ qualifications than the West Yorkshire average.